His niece, Ann Walker Marchant, confirmed Tuesday that he died peacefully Monday night.
Former President Bill Clinton remembered Jordan as someone who "never gave up on his friends or his country."
Jordan "brought his big brain and strong heart to everything and everybody he touched. And he made them better," Clinton and his wife, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, said in the statement.
His friendship with Clinton took them both to the White House. Jordan was an unofficial aide to Clinton, drawing him into controversy during the Monica Lewinsky scandal.
After serving as field secretary for the Georgia NAACP and executive director of the United Negro College Fund, Jordan headed the National Urban League, becoming the face of Black America's modern struggle for jobs and justice for more than a decade. He was nearly killed by a racist's bullet in 1980 before transitioning to business and politics.
President Joe Biden remembered Jordan as a foot soldier for civil rights. "Vernon Jordan knew the soul of America, in all of its goodness and all of its unfulfilled promise. And he knew the work was far from over," Biden said in a statement.
Former President Barack Obama said that "like so many others, Michelle and I benefited from Vernon Jordan's wise counsel and warm friendship — and deeply admired his tireless fight for civil rights."
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi said Tuesday on Twitter that "Jordan's leadership took our nation closer to its Founding promise: all are created equal."
Jordan's death comes months after the deaths of two other civil rights icons: U.S. Rep. John Lewis and C.T. Vivian.
After growing up in the Jim Crow South and living much of his life in a segregated America, Jordan took a strategic view of race issues.
"My view on all this business about race is never to get angry, no, but to get even," Jordan said in a New York Times interview in 2000. "You don't take it out in anger; you take it out in achievement."
Jordan was the first lawyer to head the Urban League, which had traditionally been led by social workers. Under his leadership, the Urban League added 17 more chapters and its budget swelled to more than $100 million. The organization also broadened its focus to include voter registration drives and conflict resolution between Blacks and law enforcement.
He resigned from the Urban League in 1982 to become a partner at Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer and Feld.
Jordan was a key campaign adviser to Clinton during his first presidential campaign and co-chaired Clinton's transition team.
His friendship with Clinton, which began in the 1970s, evolved into a partnership and political alliance. He met Clinton as a young politician in Arkansas, and the two connected over their Southern roots and poor upbringings.