April 30 2016
|Kozak Film Review|
|PACIFIC NORTHWEST NEWS|
150 years ago this week, the voice of a trailblazer for patient safety, women's rights and the abolition of slavery was forever silenced when Union Hospital Matron Hannah Ropes quietly succumbed on January 20, 1863 to typhoid pneumonia in a drafty hospital ward in Georgetown, D.C. in the middle of the Civil War.
The seemingly indefatigable 54-year-old military hospital nurse had become a casualty of the war while she was engaged in a very different, yet life-saving battle of her own at Union Hotel Hospital. For Hannah had pledged to prevent the wounded and sick soldiers under her care from dying unnecessarily from infections or illnesses caused by the unsanitary conditions found in the hospitals of the era. Hannah Ropes may have been buried with a small ceremony in the family plot in New Gloucester's Lower Corner Cemetery in Maine, but her once famous name and deeds are now cloaked in obscurity.
The current observance of 150th Anniversary of the Civil War presents the perfect opportunity to bring attention to her significant contributions to the history of American nursing, and to other heroic "Angels of the Battlefield" like the fifteen veteran women nurses who moved with their families to Oregon after the war. All are buried (some without headstones) in our pioneer cemeteries and their stories need to be preserved and presented to another generation of Oregonians. Focusing renewed attention on the life of Hannah Ropes, and recognizing her many accomplishments in the field of nursing will help Oregonians to learn about the wartime challenges that faced fifteen Oregon veteran nurses as they also worked to save lives during the Civil War.
For over six months in 1862 and leading up to Hannah Ropes' tragic death in January 1863, the Cumberland County, Maine native had taken on the daunting responsibilities of ensuring that wounded and desperately sick soldiers entering her hospital were given every possible chance to recover from their wounds or illnesses. Hannah and her Georgetown hospital nursing staff supplied the necessary aftercare for the patients surviving the surgeon's knife through the "hands-on" application of Florence Nightingale's published sanitary practices, and the dispensing of liberal doses of rest and recuperation, proper nutrition, mental and physical support. After the military doctors operated on the wounded, the nurses became the next line of defense against the rising tide of the post-battle death count, because deaths on the battlefield counted for only one third of the total number of dead and wounded for the entire war. The remainder came from diseases or infections.
Before the arrival of the nurses and the overview of the sanitary commissions the odds of the fallen soldiers surviving their wounds was very low indeed. Approximately 2-3,000 of the nurses were enlisted, and thousands more were volunteer nurses, like Alice Ropes, Hannah's daughter who took care of her mother just before she died. Oregon is the final resting place for fifteen of these "Angels of the Battlefield" who saw service in the military hospitals as hospital matrons or nurses or as regimental nurses-- wives who sometimes accompanied their husbands on the battlefields like Oregon's Mandana Thorp.
The workload of the average military hospital nurse in the 1860s was heavy and the hectic pace, unrelenting. Before the creation of our modern day "hospice care", Civil War nurses provided an early form of palliative care, working to relieve the pain, symptoms and stress of patients with serious illnesses and mortal wounds. In addition to bathing and feeding the patients and disinfecting the wards, nurses would also write letters home that were dictated to them by the patients. In circumstances where the families were not able to arrive in time to comfort their loved ones in their dying moments, the nurses would also compose a few lines of comfort that would be sent to the families.
In a time when a woman's sphere of influence was severely restricted to the home and nursery, workplace pioneers like Hanna Ropes insisted on order and professionalism for the nurses on the staff, to fend off preconceived social opinions that nurses were women of low and vulgar origins, no better than streetwalkers.
On December 13, 1862, Matron Ropes made a special entry in her diary about a new trainee who had just reported for duty: "We are cheered by the arrival of Miss Alcott from Concord—the prospect of a really good nurse, a gentlewoman who can do more than merely keep the patients from falling out of bed." Louisa May Alcott, the future author of "Little Women" had traveled over 500 miles to offer her services to the Union cause.
According to Dr. Alfred Jay Bollet, author of the acclaimed 2002 book "Civil War Medicine - Challenges and Triumphs", hospital patients, both Confederate and Union, were susceptible to many ailments and maladies including chickenpox, whooping cough, typhoid pneumonia, diphtheria, chronic diarrhea, measles, mumps, typhus, meningitis, dysentery, jaundice, smallpox, yellow fever, chronic rheumatism, scarlet fever and more. The approximately 650,000 men (and some women) who were serving in the Union Army in 1864, could at one time or another find themselves in a military hospital during their tour of duty. Dr. Bollet, described the grim outcomes for some of the stricken as he outlined the following statistics: • 11.1 percent were in a hospital being treated for some disease, as opposed to battlefield injuries. • 59.6 percent of those hospitalized for typhoid fever died • 67.1 percent of those hospitalized with pneumonia died • 42.7 percent with smallpox also perished.
In addition to the uncleanliness of the operating rooms and morgues, the unsanitary conditions of the hospital buildings greatly contributed to the rising death rates. The Union Hotel Hospital where Hanna Ropes reported for duty in July of 1862 was far from being a luxurious establishment. The Georgetown Hospital was described as a converted tavern hastily converted to usage as a military hospital after the original area hospitals could no longer handle the ever increasing casualties from the Civil War's bloodiest battles. The dilapidated building was poorly lit with few windows, and outfitted with antiquated plumbing supplying water to the kitchen and the adjacent toilets. Louisa May Alcott described the squalid surroundings in her journals. "It was well-ventilated for five panes of glass had compound fractures...," she wrote. "Poke up the fire...for a more perfect pestilence box than this house I never saw...cold, damp, dirty, full of vile odors from wounds, wash-rooms & stables."
It was hard work improving the living conditions of her patients and staff, but Hannah was up to the challenge when she first set eyes on Union Hospital. Over a decade before er husband had walked away from Hannah and their two small children to live in another state. Hannah learned to be self-reliant as she raised two children on her own and secured a divorce from her absent husband on the grounds of "abandonment".
The enlistment of Hannah's only son with the 2nd Massachusetts regiment motivated her to offer her nursing skills to the Union. In one of her 1862 letters to her mother Hannah confessed that her work in the hospital wards was maternally inspired, as her patients reminded her of her son, Edward, "...and it seemed as though these patients were he, in fifty duplicates."
Wisely, Hannah forbade her daughter, Alice from visiting or working with her at Union Hospital to protect her against lice and other dangers. In a letter to her brother, Edward, Alice reflected her pride in her mother's work: "Dear Edward, if you should be sick or wounded, makes them carry you to mother's hospital "The Union" in Georgetown. I wrote to you all about her going...She likes the work very much and am doing a great deal of good."
Matron Ropes was a passionate reformer, who had fearlessly reported on incompetent surgeons, uncaring ward physicians and bullying orderlies. She even turned in a hospital steward who was pilfering the money budgeted for the hospital's laundry soap. The hospital matron's high professional standards and diligence earned her the admiration of Union Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who reviewed her written exposes of unfair practices at the hospitals.
To prevent her from suffering retaliation at the hands of the hospital's administrators, Stanton even sent an Official Order for the head surgeon not to remove Hannah from her place in the hospital. Hannah was grateful for his intercession, as she wrote to her mother in the fall of 1862: "I can't go back (home) unless you need me more than the soldiers do... I have given myself up to this work, not for salary and laziness, but for love of country." While Hannah was busy instructing her nurse trainees, Ohio native Thirsa Gossett was working as a nurse in Evansville, Indiana in her desire to be near her husband Ward and her three brothers who were mustered in the 77th Ohio infantry. Thirsa had been assigned to work at the 702-bed United States General Military hospital in Evansville, Indiana, where she spent two years rolling bandages, nursing the sick and wounded, changing dressings and washing clothes. When her husband received his medical discharge on November 4, 1862 for severe injuries he had received at the Battle of Shiloh, Thirsa accompanied him home to their farm to help with his recuperation. Thirty years later, the Gossett family became newly minted Oregonians living in Eugene, setting down roots in the community where both are buried in adjoining plots in the pioneer cemetery.
In January 1863, Thirsa was helping to raise crops and a family in Ohio. However at the same time the already immense work load for the Union Hospital nursing staff in Georgetown had increased five-fold in December with the influx of over 9600 wounded soldiers from the bloody four day Battle of Fredericksburg that overwhelmed the staff and strained the resources of the area hospitals. The unrelenting stress, bitter winter temperatures and unhealthy living conditions finally took its toll on the Union Hospital nursing staff. On January 9, 1863, Hannah wrote in her last letter to her son, briefly mentioning that she and Miss Alcott had "worked together over four dying men and saved all but one...we both took cold...and have pneumonia and have suffered terribly."
Despite her sickness, Hannah took the time to write out a telegram to send to Bronson Alcott, to urge him to come down to Georgetown to take a critically ill Louisa back home where she would have a better chance of recuperating. Louisa was unaware of the communique to her father, and she described her view of the dire situation:"Ordered to keep to my room being threatened with pneumonia. Sharp pain in the side, cough, fever & dizziness...try to talk and keep merry but fail decidedly as day after day goes & I feel no better. Dream awfully & wake unrefreshed, think of home & wonder if I am to die here as Mrs. Ropes the matron is likely to do. Feel too miserable to care much what becomes of me...Nurses fussy, & anxious, matron dying, & everything very gloomy. They want me to go home but I wont yet..."
Suddenly, the prognosis turned grim at the Georgetown hospital, where most of the nursing staff including Louisa May Alcott became ill, and Matron Ropes was deep in the throes of the most deadly of the so-called "Swamp Fevers." Without Hannah Ropes around to keep the Union Hospital on a steady path, the situation became a little chaotic.
On January 16, Louisa described her conflicting feelings of "amazement and anger to see my father enter the room that evening, having been telegraphed to by order of Mrs. Roper without asking leave. I was very angry at first, though glad to see him, because I knew I should have to go..." However, the doctors determined at that time that Louisa was too weak to travel the distance to her home, and she was confined to her sick bed.
Soon after this, Hannah's daughter Alice was summoned to come to Union Hospital to care for her dying mother. Alice sent a dismal update from the hospital on January 19, 1863 to Edward, who had also been struggling to recuperate from his own illnesses. "Mother had been ill for some weeks and indeed nearly all the nurses ill, so they sent for me to help a little, Alice wrote" Less than twenty four hours later, Hanna Anderson Ropes became another casualty of the Civil War. The news raced throughout the wards, and frightened the hospital staff as they mourned the passing of Matron Ropes.
Louisa May Alcott noted in her journal that "On the 21st I suddenly decided to go home, feeling very strangely & dreading to be worse," she wrote. "Mrs. Ropes died & that frightened the Doctors about me for my trouble was the same typhoid pneumonia. Father, Miss Kendal and Lizzie Thurber went with me. Miss Dix brought a basket full of bottles of wine, tea, medicine & cologne, beside a little blanket & pillow, a fan & a Testament..." Alcott was finally taken home from Union Hospital on a journey that started on January 21, 1863 and ended with her arrival at home on January 24. During this time she suffered from hallucinations, fever and troubling dreams of "tending millions of sick men who never died or got well..." In February Louisa finally rallied to beat the odds and survived her bout with typhoid. Alcott slowly recovered; but the crude medical treatment which she had received permanently impaired her health as the trained doctors gave her a prescribed mixture of mercury and chalk.
Louisa used her brief wartime experience as a basis for her second published book, "Hospital Sketches." As Hannah Ropes had based her earlier publication of the book "Six Months in Kansas" on her letters sent home, Louisa used the letters she sent to Concord. Nurse and Anti-Slavery advocate Hannah Ropes would have heartily approved of its debut, as "Hospital Sketches" was initially published in installments in an abolitionist magazine only four months after Hannah's own untimely death, with the series starting on May 22, 1863, to later end up in book form.
Americans were hungry for any information about the war, and Hospital Sketches caught the public attention, and garnered Alcott her much deserved critical acclaim. Louisa was astute in not waiting like many other Civil War nurses who delayed printing their memoirs until after the war. This allowed the general public and many nursing colleagues like Amanda Akin to read passages from the book to their patients. In her memoirs, The December 1863 entry for "The Lady Nurse of Ward E," mentions where Nurse Akins "read aloud a chapter from Miss Alcott's "Hospital Sketches," which seemed to entertain a number very much, particularly my sensible John . . "
Arrangements were made to send Hannah Ropes remains back to New Gloucester in Cumberland County, Maine, for interment in the family plot in Lower Corner Cemetery. The inscription on her headstone simply reads as follows:
"HANNAH A. ROPES Born at New Gloucester. June 13, 1809. Died at Georgetown, D.C. Jan. 20, 1863."
Ropes' good friend and supporter, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts eulogized Hannah's life and contributions in a letter: "Mrs. Ropes was a remarkable character, noble and beautiful and I doubt if she has ever appeared more so than when she has been here in Washington, nursing soldiers." In the meantime, Hannah's son Edward finally received his emergency pass and found himself in Washington on January 28, a week after his mother passed away. "God has taken our mother to himself," he mournfully informed his sister, "and I am here only too late..." Edward continued to serve with the army, first in New York to support the draft and later in the west with Sherman and the Army of the Cumberland. He survived the war and was mustered out on June 9, 1865. He and his sister Alice mourned the assassination of President Lincoln and the fact that their mother who had predicted in one of her letters from Union Hospital that "there is to be NO PEACE till Freedom for all" was not around to see the promise of full emancipation and reconstruction.
Oregonians shouldn't allow the memory of the deeds of these "Angels of the Battlefield" to fade away again. Several organizations in Oregon are currently working to ensure that the contributions of the fifteen Civil War veteran nurses to our nation's history during a most perilous time are never forgotten. In 2013, the Oregon Sons of Union Veterans is planning to hold a dedication ceremony for the new headstone they have purchased to place on the unmarked gravesite of Union Army nurse veteran Mandana C. Thorp who died in Portland, Oregon on July 7, 1916 at the age of 74. The ceremony (which will be free and open to the public) will take place at Portland's picturesque Riverview Cemetery sometime in the spring of 2013.
The remains of Mandana and her husband, General Thomas Jones Thorp,were temporarily separated by time and distance as she had been buried in 1916 in an unmarked grave at Riverview Cemetery in Southwest Portland, and the General had been originally laid to rest with honors at Crystal Lake Cemetery, in Corvallis in July 1915. It was assumed that the General's remains were still interred at Crystal Lake, but in 2007, the Sons of Union Veterans, Edward Baker Camp discovered that Gen. Thorp's remains had already been relocated to River View Cemetery in Portland in 1916 to be buried next to his wife.
The 2013 Mandana Thorp headstone dedication ceremony will bring added attention to this military couple who were inseparable in life, even on the battlefield and beyond. A singular honor was accorded to Mrs. Thorp at the Union Army's Grand Review held in Washington D.C. after the end of the Civil War. According to the Oregonian: "Leading the 1st New York Dragoons was Thomas J. Thorp, riding under a banner emblazoned with the single star of a brigadier general. Riding at the general's side under her own banner decorated with a full eagle, was a woman so beloved by the regiment she was granted that place of honor: The Angel of the Battlefield, Mandana Major Thorp."
In addition to the Oregon SUV's headstone dedication, the Oregon Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission is planning several special events and programs honoring the nation's Civil War Nurses and our own fifteen Oregon Civil War veteran nurses throughout the remaining years of the Oregon Civil War 150th commemoration. This will be a continuation of the Commission's focus on Civil War Nurses that started with participation in the Louisa May Alcott series of programs presented by the Multnomah County Library in November of 2011.
For more information, please check out the Oregon Sons of Union Veterans website at www.suvoregon.org/, or the website for the Oregon Civil War Sesquicentennial located at www.oregoncivilwarsesquicentennialcommission.com/
|Comments: 0 - Pending: 0|
Post a comment in reference to this news article.
All comments are first reviewed by volunteer readers, not Oregon Herald staff. If you are interested in becoming an unpaid comment volunteer moderator, please contact us.
Copyright. All information, content, services and software displayed on, transmitted through, or used in connection with The Oregon Herald, with the exception of User Content as defined below, including for example news articles, reviews, directories, text, photographs, images, illustrations, audio clips, video, html, source and object code, trademarks, logos, and the like (collectively, the "Content"), as well as its selection and arrangement, are owned by their respective copyright holders, and/or its affiliated companies, licensors and suppliers. You may use the Content online only, and solely for your personal, non-commercial use, and you may download or print a single copy of any portion of the Content solely for your personal, non-commercial use, provided you do not remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from such Content. If you operate a Website and wish to link to The Oregon Herald, you may do so provided you agree not to use such links in a derogatory or negative manner. No other use is permitted without prior written permission of The Oregon Herald. The permitted use described in this Paragraph is contingent on your compliance at all times with these Terms of Service.
Except for standard fair use as provided to other news agencies, you may not republish any portion of the Content on any Internet, Intranet or extranet site or incorporate the Content in any database, compilation, archive or cache. You may not distribute any Content to others, whether or not for payment or other consideration, and you may not archive, modify, copy, frame, cache, reproduce, sell, publish, transmit, display or otherwise use any portion of the Content. You may not scrape or otherwise copy our Content without permission. You agree not to decompile, reverse engineer or disassemble any software or other products or processes accessible through The Oregon Herald, not to insert any code or product or manipulate the content of The Oregon Herald in any way that affects the user's experience, and not to use any data mining, data gathering or extraction method.
Requests to use Content for any purpose other than as permitted in these Terms of Service should be directed to our contact page. In certain cases, you may be able to use individual stories that appear on The Oregon Herald through online functionality we have specifically designated (e.g., to e-mail a story to a friend). In such cases, we will tell you directly in the portion of the Content you may use or you will see a link in the Content itself.
Registration. Registration is not required to view certain Content and to make limited reader comments. However, you are required if you wish advanced reader rights in posting comments. If you become a Registered Member of The Oregon Herald, you accept responsibility for all activities that occur under your Registration Account. For advanced reader comments, you agree to provide true, accurate, complete, and correct information at the time of registration, and to promptly update this information as needed so that it remains true, accurate, complete, and correct. We reserve the right to terminate your access and use of The Oregon Herald at any time for any reason. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your password and for restricting access to your computer so others outside your household may not access The Oregon Herald using your name or author name, in whole or in part without our permission. If you believe someone has accessed The Oregon Herald using your Registration Account and password without your authorization, immediately send us a report using our feedback form.
Use of Information by The Oregon Herald. You acknowledge, consent and agree that The Oregon Herald may preserve and disclose your Registration Account information and the contents of your online communications if required to do so by law, or in good faith belief that preservation and/or disclosure is reasonably necessary for the following purposes: (1) to comply with legal process, such as a court order, search warrant, or subpoena; (2) to enforce the terms of this Terms of Service; (3) to render service you request; (4) to protect the rights or property of The Oregon Herald; or (5) in circumstances that we deem, in our sole discretion, to pose a threat to the safety of you or others, or of our Service.
User Content Representations and Warranties. By placing material on The Oregon Herald, including but not limited to posting content or communications to any The Oregon Herald bulletin board, forum, blogspace, message or chat area, reader comments, classified ads, real estate posting, or posting text, images, audio files or other audio-visual content to the site ("User Content"), you represent and warrant: (1) you own or otherwise have all necessary rights to the User Content you provide and the rights to provide it under these Terms of Service; and, (2) the User Content will not cause injury to any person or entity.
User Content License. For all User Content you post, upload, or otherwise make available ("Provide") to The Oregon Herald, you grant The Oregon Herald. ("TI"), its affiliates and related entities, including The Oregon Herald and its affiliated newspapers, Web sites, and broadcast stations, a worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive right and fully sub-licensable license to use, copy, reproduce, distribute, publish, publicly perform, publicly display, modify, adapt, translate, archive, store, and create derivative works from such User Content, in any form, format, or medium, of any kind now known or later developed. Without limiting the generality of the previous sentence, you authorize TI to share the User Content across all Web sites, newspapers, and broadcast stations affiliated with oregonherald.com, to include the User Content in a searchable format accessible by users of The Oregon Herald and other TI Web sites, and to use your name, likeness and any other information in connection with its use of the material you provide. You waive all moral rights with respect to any User Content you provide to The Oregon Herald. You also grant TI the right to use any material, information, ideas, concepts, know-how or techniques contained in any communication you provide or otherwise submit to us for any purpose whatsoever, including but not limited to, commercial purposes, and developing, manufacturing and marketing commercial products using such information. All rights in this paragraph are granted without the need for additional compensation of any sort to you.
User Content Screening and Removal. You acknowledge that unpaid volunteer moderators or its designees may or may not pre-screen User Content, and shall have the right (but not the obligation), in their sole discretion, to delete, move, remove, block, edit, or refuse any User Content for any reason, including without limitation that such User Content violates these Terms of Service, OR is otherwise objectionable to the Moderator for any reason.
User Content Assumption of Risk. The Oregon Herald cannot and does not monitor or manage all User Content, and does not guarantee the accuracy, integrity, or quality of User Content. All User Content provided to The Oregon Herald is the sole responsibility of the person who provided it. This means that you are entirely responsible for all User Content that you provide. To protect your safety, please use your best judgment when using The Oregon Herald forums. We discourage divulging personal phone numbers and addresses or other information that can be used to identify or locate you. You acknowledge and agree that if you make such disclosures either through posting on any bulletin board, forum, blogspace, message or chat area, or uploading text, images, audio files or other audio-visual content, in classified advertising you place or in other interactive areas, or to third parties in any communication, you do so fully understanding that such information could be used to identify you.
User Content Posting Rules. Any decisions as to whether User Content violates any Posting Rule will be made by volunteer moderators and not The Oregon Herald. When you provide User Content, you agree to the following Posting Rules:
* If the photo or video depicts any children under the age of 13, you affirm that you have written permission from the child's parent or guardian to provide the photo or video.
* "flames" any individual or entity (e.g., sends repeated messages related to another user and/or makes derogatory or offensive comments about another individual), or repeats prior posting of the same message under multiple threads or subjects.
WARNING: A VIOLATION OF THESE POSTING RULES MAY BE REFERRED TO LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES.
Unsolicited Material and Ideas. The Oregon Herald is not responsible for the similarity of any of its content or programming in any media to materials or ideas provided to The Oregon Herald. You acknowledge and agree that if you send any unsolicited materials or ideas, you do so with the understanding no additional consideration of any sort will be provided to you, and you are waiving any claim against The Oregon Herald and its affiliates regarding the use of such materials and ideas, even if material or an idea is used that is or may be substantially similar to the idea you sent.
Communications with Third Parties Through The Oregon Herald. Your dealings or communications through The Oregon Herald with any party other than The Oregon Herald are solely between you and that third party. For example, certain areas of The Oregon Herald may allow you to conduct transactions or purchase goods or services. In most cases, these transactions will be conducted by our third-party partners and vendors. Under no circumstances will The Oregon Herald be liable for any goods, services, resources or content available through such third party dealings or communications, or for any harm related thereto. Please review carefully that third party's policies and practices and make sure you are comfortable with them before you engage in any transaction. Complaints, concerns or questions relating to materials provided by third parties should be directed to the third party.
During your visit to The Oregon Herald you may link to, or view as part of a frame, certain content that is actually created or hosted by a third party. Because The Oregon Herald has no control over third party sites and resources, you acknowledge and agree that The Oregon Herald is not responsible for the availability of external sites or resources, nor for the content, actions, or policies of those sites. Information you provide on such sites, including personal information and transactional information, is subject to the terms of service of those sites.
Notice of Intellectual Property Infringement. In accordance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and other applicable law, it is the policy of The Oregon Herald, in appropriate circumstances, to terminate the Registration Account of a Member who is deemed to infringe third party intellectual property rights or to remove User Content that is deemed to be infringing. If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement and is displayed on The Oregon Herald, please provide substantially the following information to our Copyright Agent (please consult your legal counsel or see 17 U.S.C. Section 512(c)(3) to confirm these requirements):
The Oregon Herald's copyright agent can be reached as follows:
Please note that the above contact information is for intellectual property infringement notices only. DO NOT CONTACT The Oregon Herald'S COPYRIGHT AGENT FOR OTHER INQUIRIES OR QUESTIONS. For other inquiries or questions, please contact us. Please also note that, pursuant to Section 512(f) of the Copyright Act, any person who knowingly materially misrepresents that material or activity is infringing may be subject to liability.
Counter-Notification for Intellectual Property Infringement. If you elect to send us a counter-notice in response to a notice of intellectual property infringement, to be effective it must be a written communication provided to The Oregon Herald's designated Copyright Agent (see above for contact information) that includes substantially the following (please consult your legal counsel or see 17 U.S.C. Section 512(g)(3) to confirm these requirements):
Please note that under Section 512(f) of the Copyright Act, any person who knowingly materially misrepresents that material or activity was removed or disabled by mistake or misidentification may be subject to liability.
General Disclaimer and Limitation of Liability. While The Oregon Herald uses reasonable efforts to include accurate and up-to-date information, we make no warranties or representations as to the accuracy of the Content and assume no liability or responsibility for any error or omission in the Content. The Oregon Herald does not represent or warrant that use of any Content will not infringe rights of third parties. The Oregon Herald has no responsibility for actions of third parties or for content provided by others, including User Content.
USE OF The Oregon Herald IS AT YOUR RISK. ALL CONTENT IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE." NEITHER TI, The Oregon Herald, NOR ANY OF THEIR AFFILIATED OR RELATED COMPANIES, NOR ANY OF THE EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, CONTENT PROVIDERS OR LICENSORS OF ANY OF THEM, MAKES ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF ANY KIND REGARDING The Oregon Herald, THE CONTENT, ANY ADVERTISING MATERIAL, INFORMATION, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES AVAILABLE ON OR THROUGH The Oregon Herald, AND/OR THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM USE OF The Oregon Herald OR SUCH CONTENT OR SERVICES. ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WARRANTIES AGAINST INFRINGEMENT, AND WARRANTIES The Oregon Herald WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS, BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE OR ERROR FREE, ARE SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. The Oregon Herald AND ITS AFFILIATES ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE OR LIABLE FOR CONTENT POSTED BY THIRD PARTIES, ACTIONS OF ANY THIRD PARTY, OR FOR ANY DAMAGE TO, OR VIRUS THAT MAY INFECT, YOUR COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OR OTHER PROPERTY.
The Oregon Herald CONTAINS FACTS, VIEWS, OPINIONS, STATEMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THIRD PARTY INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS. The Oregon Herald DOES NOT REPRESENT OR ENDORSE THE ACCURACY, CURRENTNESS OR RELIABILITY OF ANY ADVICE, OPINION, STATEMENT OR OTHER INFORMATION DISPLAYED, UPLOADED OR DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE The Oregon Herald. ANY RELIANCE UPON ANY SUCH OPINION, ADVICE, STATEMENT OR INFORMATION IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK.
IN NO EVENT SHALL The Oregon Herald OR ITS AFFILIATES, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, CONTENT PROVIDERS OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES RELATED TO UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO OR ALTERATION OF YOUR TRANSMISSIONS OR DATA, THE CONTENT OR ANY ERRORS OR OMISSIONS IN THE CONTENT, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IN NO EVENT SHALL The Oregon Herald OR ITS AFFILIATES, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, CONTENT PROVIDERS OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY AMOUNT FOR DIRECT DAMAGES IN EXCESS OF $100.
Indemnity. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless The Oregon Herald and TI, each of their parent and affiliated companies, and each of their respective partners, suppliers, licensors, officers, directors, shareholders, employees, representatives, contractors and agents, and sub-licensees from any and all claims (including but not limited to claims for defamation, trade disparagement, privacy and intellectual property infringement) and damages (including attorneys' fees and court costs) arising from or relating to any allegation regarding: (1) your use of The Oregon Herald; (2) The Oregon Herald's and The Oregon Herald's use of any User Content or information you provide, as long as such use is not inconsistent with this Agreement; (3) information or material provided through your Registration Account, even if not posted by you; and (4) any violation of this Agreement by you.
InterLOCAL Users. The Oregon Herald is controlled, operated and administered by The Oregon Herald from its offices within the United States. The Oregon Herald makes no representation that materials or Content available through The Oregon Herald are appropriate or available for use outside the United States and access to them from territories where their contents are illegal is prohibited. You may not use The Oregon Herald or export the Content in violation of U.S. export laws and regulations. If you access The Oregon Herald from a location outside the United States, you are responsible for compliance with all applicable laws.
Modifying these Terms. The Oregon Herald reserves the right to change these Terms of Service at any time in its discretion and to notify users of any such changes solely by changing these Terms of Service. Your continued use of The Oregon Herald after the posting of any amended Terms of Service shall constitute your agreement to be bound by any such changes. Your use of this site prior to the time these Terms of Service were posted will be governed according to the Terms of Service that applied at the time of your use.
Discontinuation of Service. The Oregon Herald may modify, suspend, discontinue or restrict the use of any portion of The Oregon Herald, including the availability of any portion of the Content at any time, without notice or liability. The Oregon Herald may deny access to any Registered Member or other user at any time for any reason. In addition, TI or The Oregon Herald may at any time transfer rights and obligations under this Agreement to any The Oregon Herald's Company affiliate, subsidiary or business unit, or any of their affiliated companies or divisions, or any entity that acquires TI, The Oregon Herald or any of their assets.Choice of Law. These Terms of Service will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Oregon, without regard to its conflicts of law provisions. You hereby agree that any cause of action you may have with respect to The Oregon Herald must be filed in a federal or state court located in Portland, Oregon.
Statute of Limitations. You agree to file any claim regarding any aspect of this site or these Terms of Service within six months of the time in which the events giving rise to such claim began, or you agree to waive such claim. No Class Actions. You agree no claim subject to these Terms of Service may be brought as a class action.
Severability. If for any reason any provision of this Agreement is found unenforceable, that provision shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to effect the intent of the parties as reflected in that provision, and the remainder of the Agreement shall continue in full force and effect.
No Waiver. Any failure of The Oregon Herald to enforce or exercise any provision of this Agreement or related right shall not constitute a waiver of that right or provision.
Section Titles. The section titles used in this Agreement are purely for convenience and carry with them no legal or contractual effect.Termination. In the event of termination of this Agreement for any reason, you agree the following provisions will survive: the provisions regarding limitations on your use of Content, the license(s) you have granted to The Oregon Herald, and all other provisions for which survival is equitable or appropriate.
Last updated on March 14, 2013.
Copyright © 2013
The Oregon Herald Privacy Statement
All comments are first reviewed by volunteer readers, not Oregon Herald staff. If you are interested in becoming an unpaid comment volunteer moderator, please let us know.
The information we collect and how we collect it.
We may collect information about your visit but not about you personally, other than the information you provide in your comments or publishers account. We do not share information with outside sources. We use your name, username, password, email address, and any other information only to better manage your account.Please be careful and responsible whenever you are online. Should you choose to voluntarily disclose information with free classified ads, on message boards, chat areas or in notices or comments you post, that information can be viewed publicly and can be collected and used by third parties without our knowledge and may result in unsolicited messages from other individuals or third parties.
When you use the Services, we use persistent and session cookies and other tracking technologies for the sole purpose of managing your account and to better manage our website interface. We have no commercial interest in your vists or in what you post.
What we do with the information we collect.
We use the information that we collect for the following purposes:
How we protect information.
We have implemented reasonable administrative, technical, and physical security measures to protect against the loss, misuse and alteration of your information. Despite our best efforts, however, no security measures are completely impenetrable.
How to contact us.
Changes to this policy.
The Oregon Herald reserves the right to change this policy at any time. Please check this page periodically for changes. Your continued use of the Services following the posting of changes to this policy will mean you accept those changes.
Copyright © 2014 The Oregon Herald.
Last updated on Janruary 21, 2014.
Copyright © 2014